Secondary market or stock exchange Meaning, Features, Functions
Investing in Stock Market
Secondary market or stock exchange Meaning
Secondary market also called stock exchange represents a market where existing securities i.e. shares and debentures are traded. Its main function is to create a link between the buyers and sellers of securities so that investments can change hands in the quickest and cheapest manner.
According to Securities Contract (Regulation) Act, 1956, the term stock exchange has been defined as, “an association, organisation or body of individuals, whether incorporated or not, established for the purpose of assisting, regulating and controlling business in buying, selling and dealing in securities.”
Thus, a stock market is a market where dealings in the listed securities are made by the members of the exchange on their own behalf or on behalf of others.
Features of Secondary Market
1. It is a market where the existing securities are traded. It is also called stock Exchange.
2. In secondary market, both buying and selling of securities take place. Unlike primary market, Securities of companies are traded between investors. There is no connection between investors and the company.
3. In secondary market, the prices of the securities are determined by the forces of demand and supply of the securities.
4. High rate of growth in securities encourages new investors to invest in securities market.
5. The securities of corporations, trusts, governments, municipal corporations etc. are allowed to be dealt at stock exchnages.
6. Main purpose of secondary market is to provide liquidity to the investors. Investors can sell their securities through stock exchanges as and when they desire.
7. Secondary market has a particular place which is called stock exchange.
Role or Functions of stock exchange in capital market
Presence and vibrant functioning of a stock exchange is necessary for a developing economy. It reflects healthy financial and investment conducive atmosphere in the economy. The Indian securities market is considered as one of the most promising emerging markets. It is one of the top eight markets of the world. The stock exchange plays a vital role in the process of raising resources for the development of corporate sector. In the absence of the stock exchange it would be impossible for private enterprises, industries and entrepreneurs to survive and grow. A stock exchange plays a significant role in a capital market which are mentioned below:
a) Encourages capital formation: A common investor is attracted to capital market. Today investor prefers to divert his surplus and savings in the securities like shares, debentures, mutual funds etc. As a result new capital formation is speeded up.
b) Resource Mobilsation: Due to continuous buying and selling of the securities the resources of the economy flow from one company to other company giving comparatively higher returns. This helps mobilization of resources.
c) Help in repaid economic development: The stock exchanges help in the process of rapid economic development by speeding up the process of capital formation and resource mobilization. It helps in raising the medium and long term capital for the development and expansion of the companies. New industries and commercial enterprises easily get capital funds through a stock exchange.
d) Flexibility in investments: The stock exchanges provide liquidity to the investment made in the securities. As there are multiple options, investors can flexibly go on switching their investment where it is more beneficial?
e) Value addition to the securities: Listing of shares on a stock exchange adds to the prestige and reputation to companies. With the advantage of listed shares it can raise loans from corporate sector.
f) Protects investor’s interest: All the transactions in the stock exchanges are effected and controlled by the Securities Control (Regulation) Act 1956. The stock exchanges protect the interests of the investors through the strict enforcement of their rules and regulations. The malpractices of the brokers are punishable with heavy fine, suspension of their membership and even imprisonment.
g) Motivation to Management: A stock exchange allows the trading of listed securities only. Listing procedure requires to comply with certain guidelines for protecting the interests of investors and obviously are under strict supervision of stock exchange. If companies do not comply with the rules and regulations of the exchange, the shares of a company can be delisted. To avoid such unfavorable and undesirable consequences every company manages its affairs more cautiously and effectively.