Isoquants Curve and its Properties
The word an isoquant is a locus of points, representing different combinations labour and capital. An isoquant Curve ‘ISO’ is of Greek origin and means equal or same and ‘quant’ means quantity. An isoquant may be defined as a curve showing all the various combinations of two factors that can produce a given level of output.
The isoquant shows- the whole range of alternative ways of producing– the same level of output. The modern economists are using isoquant, or ‘ISO’ product curves for determining the optimum factor combination to produce certain units of a commodity at the least cost.
Properties or Features of Isoquant Curve
The following are the important properties of isoquants:
1. Isoquant is downward sloping to the right: This means that if more of one factor is used less of the other is needed for producing the same output.
2. A higher isoquant represents larger output: This means that if more factor of production are used the output will also increases.
3. No isoquants intersect or touch each other: If so it will mean that there will be a common point on the two curves. This further means that same amount of labour and capital can produce the two levels of output which is meaningless.
4. Isoquants need not be parallel to each other: It so happens because the rate of substitution in different isoquant schedules need not necessarily is equal. Usually they are found different and therefore, isoquants may not be parallel.
5. Isoquant is convex to the origin: This implies that the slope of the isoquant diminishes from left to right along the curve. This is because of the operation of the principle of diminishing marginal rate of technical substitution.
6. No isoquant can touch either axis: If an isoquant touches X axis then it would mean that without using any labour the firm can produce output with the help of capital alone. If an isoquant touches Y axis, it would mean that without using any capital the firm can produce output with the help of labour alone. This is impossible.
7. Isoquants have negative slope: This is so because when the quantity of one factor (labour) is increased the quantity of other factor (capital) must be reduced, so that total output remains the same.