Development experience of India | Indian Economic Development Notes Class 12

Part B: Indian Economic Development Notes Class 12

Unit 4: Development experience of India: A comparison of India, Pakistan and China

Q.1. What similar developmental strategies have India and Pakistan followed for their respective developmental paths?
Ans: Following are the similarities in the developmental strategies of India, Pakistan and China

(i) India, Pakistan and China have started towards their developmental path at the same time. India and Pakistan both have started their developmental programmes based on economic planning soon after their independence in 1947. While people’s Republic of China was established in 1949.

(ii) Both of them introduced economic reforms at the same time and also in similar time to strengthen their economies. . India announced its Five Year Plan in 1951-56, while Pakistan announced its Five Year Plan in 1956, which is called medium-term plan. China announced its First Five Year Plan in 1953.

(iii) Till the 1980s, all the three countries had similar growth rates and per capita incomes. Both the countries relied on the public sector for initiating the process of growth and development. Both of them have followed the path of mixed economic structure involving the participation of both the state as well as the private sector.

(iv) Economic reforms took place in all the three countries. Reforms started in India in 1991, in China 1978 and in Pakistan in 1988.

Q.2. Group the following features pertaining to the economies of India, China and Pakistan under the following heads: • One-child norm, • Low fertility rate, • High degree of urbanisation, • Mixed economy, • Very high fertility rate, • Large population, • High density of population, • Growth due to manufacturing sector, • Growth due to service sector.                                         2015, 2018

Ans: Comparison of India, China and Pakistan

Basis India China Pakistan
Urbanisation Rural areas are more than urban. More proportion of urban population. More proportion of urban population.
Land Fertility rate Moderate to high fertility Low fertility High fertility
Poverty line People below poverty line is more as compared to china and Pakistan. People below poverty line is very less as compared to India and China. People below poverty line is less as compared to India but more as compared to China.
Children policy No specific children policy. One children policy. No specific children policy.
Density of population High density of population Low density of population. High density of population.
Growth Growth due to service sector. Growth due to manufacturing sector. Growth due to service sector.
Economy Mixed economy Mixed economy Sociolistic
Per capita income Per capita income is higher than Pakistan Per capital income is higher than India and Pakistan Per capita income is lower
GDP Higher than Pakistan Higher than India and Pakistan Lower than India and China
Literacy Literacy rate is 91.7% Literacy rate is 99.6% Literacy rate is 76%
Sports India is performing well in recent years. China is best in Asia Pakistan is better in the field of outdoor game as compared to India.
Size of population 135 crores 145 crores 20 crores

 Q.3. Give reasons for the slow growth and re-emergence of poverty in Pakistan.

Ans: The reasons for the slow growth and re-emergence of poverty in Pakistan are:

  1. The Pakistan was mainly dependent on Public Sector Enterprises. The operational inefficiencies of the system along with the misallocation of scarce resources resulted in slow economic growth rate arid poverty.
  2. The agricultural practices in Pakistan were not modernised and there remained heavy dependence on rainfall and traditional methods of farming.
  3. There was an increasing dependence on foreign loans for meeting foreign exchange requirements.
  4. Pakistan failed to attract any substantial amount of foreign investment due to political instability, lack of international credibility and infrastructure bottlenecks.

Q.4. Compare and contrast the development of India, China and Pakistan with respect to some salient human development indicators.

Ans: China is way ahead of India and Pakistan at most of the human development indicators. China ranked 85, India 129th and Pakistan 152th. High ranking of China is due to the higher GDP per capita. Moreover, the one-child norm led to sustained rise in the GDP; consequently, China was ranked higher than India and Pakistan in HDI. Pakistan is ahead of India in terms of reducing the number of people below poverty line and in providing better sanitation and drinking water. But both the countries perform equally badly in terms of infant mortality and maternal mortality rates. All the three countries perform badly in sex ratio.

(a) First Five Year Plan of Pakistan commenced in the year 1956.

(b) Maternal mortality rate is high in Pakistan.

(c) Proportion of people below poverty line is more in India.

(d) Reforms in China were introduced in 1978.

Q.5. List out the major contributors of GDP of India, China and Pakistan.              2015

Ans: Contributors of GDP:

China India Pakistan
Service sector followed by industry.

Investment in fixed capital.

Service Sector

Household consumptions

Service Sector

Household Consumptions

Q.6. What is Great Leap Forward Campaign?

Ans: Great Leap Forward, in Chinese history, the campaign undertaken by the Chinese communists between 1958 and early 1960 to organize its vast population, especially in large-scale rural communes, to meet China’s industrial and agricultural problems.


Part A: Introductory Macro Economics


Part B: Indian Economic Development

  1. Development Experience (1947 – 1990)
  2. Economic Reforms since 1991
  3. Current challenges facing Indian Economy
  4. Development Experience of India: A Comparison with Neighbours

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